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PSP-3000とCFW(4)

2009 年 2 月 3 日 コメントをどうぞ コメント

先日の記事を書いた後でさらに色々試していたらPSPの異常な動作を何個か発見したよ♪

これは!!バッファーオーバーフローだ!!って早とちりしてしまったけど

バッファオーバーフローとプログラムの仕組みに関する理解が足りないと思ったので少し調べてみたよ♪

あの動作は何だったんだろう???

そろそろ「だよ♪」とか使うのに違和感を覚えだしたよw

キモイwww

 

※注意 「この記事には数多くの間違いが含まれています。

内容に関しての正確性はゼロと考えた上でお読みください」

 

私はPSPの SYSTEM → BROWSER の中にある(bookmarks.html)のタイトルの文字を書き換えて(通常では考えられないような長文を入力しました)PSPに戻しPSPのWEBブラウザからブックマークのマイリストを開く事でPSPがクラッシュして電源が落ちる事を確認しました。

その後2chでこの現象について報告を行い、いくつかのヒントを得ました

 

2chにて得た情報

A クラッシュ == Exploit(非正規コードの実行が出来る訳ではない)

B エラーの起こった領域がスタック領域だと発展の可能性あり

C エラーの起こった領域がヒープ領域だと発展の可能性は0

D C言語的に言えばbuff[260]にて起こりbuff = malloc(260)だと起こらない

E データ格納場所が紙の上か机の上か?それが重要

 

上記の事を全く理解出来なかったのでデータの格納場所が問題なのか?

と自分勝手な予測を立ててみました

 

データ格納場所が重要なら本体の機能に近い部分でクラッシュさせればいいのかな?

 

ものは試しと思って今度は

 

異常動作法2

PSP→SYSTEM→BROWSERの中のhistorys.dat<title>タグの中に

長い文字を入れる

 

こうした後でPSPのXMBからインターネット検索を開いてもPSPの電源が落ちる事を確認しました

 

・前回の異常動作はあくまでPSPの中のWEBブラウザ上で起きたクラッシュ

・今回のクラッシュはPSPのXMB上にて起きたクラッシュ

 

上記のように大きな違いがありました

しかしながら、このクラッシュが本当にExploitに繋がる物なのかを確かめる術がありません。

まずはバッファオーバーフローに関しての知識を蓄えると共に本質的なPSPの内部動作を把握しながらC言語の基本的な知識を蓄えるしか無いのだろうか・・・

 

そう思いながら本日を迎えた訳です

 

昼休みを利用してバッファオーバーフローに関するサイトを読み漁ってみました。

バッファオーバーフローの起こるメモリに関しての記述を見つけ

上記注釈「B・C・E」に関する事は何となく理解できました。

また読み漁ってる中でドンピシャの記事を見つけさらに理解を深めました

それによると

 

スタック・バッファオーバーフロー

メモリ中のスタック領域で発生するバッファオーバーフローの事

スタック領域には通常自動変数や関数の引数、戻り値やリターンアドレス等プログラムの動作にとって重要なデータを格納するメモリの領域である

 

ヒープ・バッファオーバーフロー

メモリ中のヒープ領域で発生するバッファオーバーフローの事

プログラム中に動的にメモリを確保したい場合に利用される

C言語ではmalloc()関数によって確保される

 

なるほど!

これで上記注釈の「A・D」を理解する事が出来た訳です

では異常動作法2の場合について考えてみようと思います

異常動作法2で使用したhistorys.datというファイルは検索履歴を保存しておくファイルです

historys.datに検索履歴を保存しておく事により

過去の検索履歴より再検索が可能になる仕組みです

 

ではプログラマー的観点からこれを見た場合にどう考えるでしょうか???

検索履歴は動的なものでありブラウザ起動後は必要な物でもない・・・

メモリに保存する必要性とすれば

検索語句入力からメモリースティックに書き込むまでの間必要になるだけである

とすると資源の限られているスタック領域を利用するとは考えにくい

自分ならヒープ領域を利用するでしょう・・・

う・・・うわああああああああああああああああ!!!!!

↑※上記内容にはかなりの間違いが有ります

 

もし・・・もし・・・・PSPのプログラマーさんが何か疲れていて

いやちょっと頭がボーっとしていてもいい

何かの変な状況でこの検索語句をメモリースティックに保存する為に用意した変数に

malloc()関数を利用する事無く直接スタック領域に書き込む様にプログラミングしていれば・・・・

 

 

 

こんな事は、まず無さそうな気がします・・・orz

これでPSPのバッファオーバーフローを取り巻く現象の氷山の一角を見れた様な気がしました・・・

気がしただけかもしれませんけど・・・

間違いがあったらコメント等で指摘お願いしますw

 

では次にGripShiftにて起こった動作を考えてみようと思います

GripShiftのバッファオーバーフローの仕組みは、多分以下のような感じだと勝手に推測してみました

 

1 セーブデータの登録してある名前を(スパルタアアアアアアア~アアア!!)で書き換えたセーブデータを読み込ませる

2 名前の欄のデータはゲーム中幾度も利用する物で利用時ごとに読み込むのは面倒だ・・・

3 よ~し!パパ、スタック領域に名前を保存しちゃうぞお!!

4 あれ?名前・・・長い・・・なが・・・な・・・・・

スタック領域の内容を改変されて自作プログラムを走らせる

↑※上記内容には数多くの間違いが含まれています 

 

といった流れになってしまったのでしょうか?????

間違ってたら指摘お願いしますw

 

ここでふと疑問に思いました・・・

別にGripShiftじゃなくてもいいんじゃない???

何のゲームであれあまり動的に変更しない物とかでスタック領域に格納しそうだな・・・と思うものであれば・・・

 

この事をまとめると

・スタック領域に格納しそうなデータを保有しているゲームで

・その格納するデータの長さのチェックを行っていないプログラム(そのまま受け渡された値をメモリに書き込んでしまう)

 

この2点さえクリアしていればスタック領域でのバッファオーバーフローは起きるのでは?

多分・・・きっと・・・だといいなぁ・・・・・・・

私はMHP2Gしか持っていないのでMHP2Gで言えば

 

・名前

・ゲームの設定

 

とっさに思いついたのがこの2点でしたw

試したいところですが残念ながらセーブデータをいじくれる環境がありません・・・・・

PSP1000買うか悩んでいます・・・・・

 

またGripShiftの日本語版に関しては、この仕組みを考えると

よっぽどの事が無い限り日本語版でもExploitの実行は可能だと思います

日本語版だけ使用する関数変えてるなんて考えにくいです

 

今回の調査結果は思ったよりも大変為になる調査でした

今後の課題としては

 

・エラー時にどの領域でバッファオーバーフローが起きているか知る方法を把握する方法は?

・strncpy()を利用していればメモリ保存時に絶対バッファオーバーフローは起こらないのか?

・逆にstrcpy()だとメモリ保存時に必ずバッファオーバフローになるのか?

・クラッシュすれば領域は別にしてバッファオーバーフローが起きていると考えていいのか?

・バッファオーバーフローの戻り値をいじくるには?計算方法は?調査

 

こんな感じになると思います

WEBプログラミングには殆ど概念の無いメモリの管理とか読んでいるだけで楽しくなっちゃいました

これを機会にC言語も勉強してみようと思います

2ch改造板の嘆きの穴の前スレ5の887さんや899さんがまだいてくれてると嬉しいな♪

ではまた進展があったら書きますね♪

 

 


 

追記

・エラー時にどの領域でバッファオーバーフローが起きているか知る方法を把握する方法

これを知る方法が少しだけ見えてきた

 

2chの>>37さんが教えてくれた情報

メモリレジスタの違いをまず理解して来い

 

レジスタって何でしょうか?

またGoogle大先生にお世話になってみました

その結果メモリとレジスタとCPUの関係について記載してあるサイトを見つけました

その中で大事だと思う部分を自分なりに抜き出してみました

 

・CPUはメモリに入っている命令を順番に処理していく

CPUが処理している命令の次のアドレスはCPU内のIPレジスタが持っている

 

上記の事が分かりました

では何故IPレジスタがあるのでしょうか?

 

その答えも別のサイトに掲載されていました

 

CPUは今処理中の命令の格納されているアドレスを知らないから

 

なるほど・・・

今処理している命令がどの部分か分からなければ次の命令がどの命令か分からない

だからCPUのIPレジスタという部分で今処理している命令のアドレスを保有しておくんだ・・・

奥深い・・・奥深すぎますねメモリさん

 

という事は、PSPがクラッシュする直前にCPUのIPレジスタに書き込まれているアドレスが問題のメモリ領域であると言えるんだと思いました

つまりCPUのIPレジスタを監視する事で

エラー時にどの領域でバッファオーバーフローが起きているか知る事が出来ると考えられるんだと思いました

 

そしてデバッガツールを使うことによってこのCPUのIPレジスタを監視する事が出来るのです!

きっと・・・多分・・・・みんなデバッガツール使えって言ってたし・・・・

 

仮に解決した事にしておきます

間違ってたら指摘お願いしますw

 

次はアセンブラで簡単なコードを書けるようにならないといけないらしいです・・・

それまで戻ってくるなと>>37さんに言われています・・・

Hello World!!位でいいのでしょうか?

頑張ります・・・

 

 


 

追記

レジスタに関するページを読み進めていくとまた面白い事が分かった

 

・ヒープ領域は上位から下位へ追記していく

・スタック領域は下位から上位へ追記していく

・IPレジスタには1つしかアドレスを保有できないので関数やサブルーチンでアドレスが飛んだ場合はスタック領域にアドレスを退避させる

 

あれ・・・・・?

ヒープ領域とスタック領域って別のメモリだと思ってました・・・orz

 

バッファオーバーフローの虚弱性があると

スタック部分に書き込まれた戻り先のアドレス(退避させられていた戻り先アドレス)を

それ以降にスタックメモリに書き込まれた情報(溢れた情報)で上書きする事が出来る!

 

という事は溢れさせる情報の中にプログラムとそこに戻る為のプログラムを溢れて上書きする分だけ綺麗に埋めてあげられれば認証されていないコードを動かす事が出来るという事ですよね???

こんな感じで?

 

 

だから情報が保存されるのがスタックメモリじゃないと意味が無いって事ですよね?

何だか頭がこんがらがってきましたw

間違ってたら指摘お願いしますw

カテゴリー: PSP
  1. ボレロ
    2009 年 2 月 3 日 19:24 | #1

    またまた、失礼します。

    すごいですね・・・わたしなんかは、解説サイトを見ても内容を把握するまでには至らないことが多いので・・・汗
    いろいろ勉強させていただきました。ありがとうございます。

    >PSP1000買うか悩んでいます・・・・・

    たしかに、これがあればかなりいろんなことが調べられるかもしれませんね。
    入手困難でしょうけど・・・

    現状では、
    ・PSP-3000
    ・グリップシフト
    をそろえることくらいでしょうか・・・

    Daxと同じ環境に置いてみて模倣し、実際にバグを体験するのもいいのかなと思います。
    (まあ、DAXはいろんな材料・知識が備わった環境でしょうけど・・・汗)

    なにもアドバイスできませんでしたが、応援しております。

  2. 2009 年 2 月 4 日 12:22 | #2

    @ボレロ
    いつもコメント有難うございます
    解説サイト見てても面白いですよw
    中の人がどうやって動いているのか理解できると楽しくなります♪

    PSP-1000は必須みたいです
    どうにかして調達しようと思っています
    というか既に目的が変わってしまった感じですw

    これからも頑張って記事書きますので応援宜しくお願いします♪

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    That really cauprtes the spirit of it. Thanks for posting.

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  13. 2016 年 4 月 7 日 00:02 | #13

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  14. 2016 年 4 月 11 日 17:21 | #14

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  15. 2016 年 4 月 14 日 23:40 | #15

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  16. 2016 年 4 月 15 日 19:22 | #16

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  17. 2016 年 5 月 13 日 10:15 | #17

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  18. 2016 年 5 月 20 日 22:45 | #18

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  19. 2016 年 6 月 5 日 08:39 | #19

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  20. 2016 年 6 月 25 日 22:45 | #20

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  21. 2016 年 7 月 15 日 18:51 | #21

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  1. 2009 年 2 月 6 日 20:29 | #1